The old city of KIOS was built further to the east than the present one. One can see there today the old cemetery, the Acropolis, the long city walls, and the quarries, all of which date from the Pelasgic era.The city walls, which ran down to the beach, enclosed both the city and the Acropolis. They were made of plain, raw, free-standing stones of huge dimensions, (1,5x 2 m) free from any joining substance. The Acropolis was built on a hill at the highest point of the area, the city lying beneath it, near the beach. The Acropolis had its own separate walls. Long, wide, underground passages reached out from the Acropolis, going both to the beach and the main strategic places of the city. There were also large food storage rooms spread about underground, necessary in case of a city siege.

        The port of the city, due to its location, was a very important and interesting point of commerce in the then known world. Stravon tells us that the healthy trade in food, such as salted and smoked fish, wine, oil, olives, honey, dried fruits and raw materials like wool and wood, was the main reason for the prosperity of the city. The well known marble somaki (black-white) was taken from Mount Argathonion.

       According to Herodotus, the city took part in the Ionian revolution against the Persians, and was also a member of the Delos alliance.The democratic constitution of the city, the laws, the institutions, the education, the high style of living and the taxation system attracted Aristotle to study and write a book titled "KIANON POLITEIA".

      As Plato in "POLITEIAI" and Aristotle in "POLITIKA" mention, all kinds of democratic constitutions were to be found in KIOS. These included a Parliament (Vouli),a Senate (Gerousia), officers and authorities, such as the prytaneis, sun priests, rites, examinants, deaneries, tribal chiefs and gymnasiarchos. All these were to be found in the Kionian city. Exceptional honors were awarded to any citizen who rendered special services for the good of the city.

     The taxation system of the city was based on income. Taxes were assessed on agricultural products coming from the fields into the city and all goods traded through the port, both imports and exports.







          Cius (Ghemlik), at the head of the gulf of the Propontis, which took its name from the city, was, according to Mela, the most convenient emporium for Phrygia. It was said to have been founded by Kios or by Hylas, Argonauts and companions of Herakles. On some of the coins Herakles is himself called ΚΤΙCΤΗC.

        There are no early coins of this town, its first issues dating from the age of Alexander the Great. All the gold staters known come from the Sidon hoards, which appear to have been buried either about B.C. 308 (Rev. Num., 1865, 8) or about B.C. 288, if the dates upon the gold coins of Ace in these hoards are to be reckoned from the Seleucid era. Six (N. C., 1885, p. 42) dates the earliest coins of Cius, B.C. 321.



Circ. B.C. 330-302.


Head of Apollo. Prow, ornamented with star, and magis- trates name, ΑΓΑΣΙΚΛΗΣ, ΑΓ- ΝΩΝΙΔΗΣ, ΙΕΡΟΚΛΗΣ, ΠΡΟΞΕ- ΝΟΣ.
AV Stater.
Id. Beneath, ΚΙΑ. [On the weights of the AR see Imhoof in Journ. Int., 1898, p. 19.] Id. (For magistrates names see Rec. gn., p. 311 f.).
AR Persic Drachm 81 grs.
AR Drachm 40 grs.
AR Drachm 20 grs.


Circ. B.C. 302-202.
Young male head, in Persian head-dress (Mithras ?). ΚΙΑΝΩΝ Club.
Id. [Cf. Hunter Cat., II. p. 242, No. 5; Journ. Int., 1898, p. 19.] ΚΙΑ Kantharos, grapes, and ears of corn.
Head of Apollo. ΚΙΑΝΩΝ Club.
Head of Herakles.     Club and bow in case.
Laurel-wreath.     Club and lion-skin.


After circ. B.C. 202 (Prusias ad Mare).

        Under the rule of the earlier kings of Bithynia the silver coinage ceases. Philip V of Macedon destroyed the town in B.C. 202 and gave the site to Prusias I. It received from the latter the name of Prusias ad Mare, and struck bronze coins, reading ΠΡΟΥΣΙΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΘΑΛΑΣΣΗΙ: obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Club and bow in case; obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Tripod. One with name of an ΑΡΓΥΡΟΤΑΜΙΑΣ.

       Between the conquest of Bithynia by the Romans, B.C. 72, and the accession of Augustus occur the coins of two queens, Musa, daughter of Orsobaris, and Orodaltis, daughter of a King Lycomedes (Reinach, Tr. Roy., p. 135); obv. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΜΟΥΣΗΣ ΟΡΣΟΒΑΡΙΟΣ, Head of Musa, rev. ΠΡΟΥΣΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΘΑΛΑΣΣΗΙ Head of Herakles. AE. Also obv. ΩΡΟΔΑΛΤΙΔΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΚΟΜΗΔΟΥΣ ΘΥΓΑΤΡΟΣ Head of Orodaltis, rev. ΠΡΟΥΣΙΕΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΘΑΛΑΣΣΗ, Fulmen. . (Rec. gn., p. 316)


Under Roman Rule (Cius).

          Under the Romans Cius recovered its original name, and Imperial coins are known from Claudius to Saloninus. Inscr., ΚΙΑΝΩΝ, ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ ΚΙΑΝΩΝ (chiefly Hadrian), CЄΥΗΡΟΥ ΒΑCΙΛΕΥΟΝΤΟC Ο ΚΟCΜΟC ЄΥΤΥΧЄΙ ΜΑΚΑΡΙΟΙ ΚΙΑΝΟΙ (Sept. Severus). Types:

ΗΡΑΚΛΗΣ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΣ Herakles standing; ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΝ ΚΙΑΝΟΙ Herakles standing; Herakles reclining; Athena; Sarapis; Aphrodite crouching (N. Z., 1891, p. 14); Eros; Youth Hylas, holding bucket from which water flows (cf. Strab. xii. 564); Youth Kios (?), adjusting sandal; Two goats with forelegs on amphora; Galley.

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